Top 5 Common Prejudices About CONNECTED VEHICLES.

So connected vehicles have become very popular in recent years. There is a lot of research that is going on building connected vehicles for good reasons. what are these different reasons? so stand-alone vehicles embedded with different sensors have been there for several years now if not decades. So, you know these standalone different vehicles you know we all are using different vehicles and these have different embedded sensors, embedded systems, and so on. But in connected vehicles actually, we are talking about how we can make communication between different vehicles possible. So, what kind of communications?

Communication between a vehicle one vehicle with another vehicle communication between a vehicle and a pedestrian user or another user who is not there in the vehicle and the roadside infrastructure or the existing infrastructure in a city, so all of these different possibilities are there in a connected vehicle.

So let us look at this particular example, let us say that we have so we are talking about a scenario to motivate why the connected vehicle connected vehicles are required? So let us say that we have these different vehicles on the road so in every vehicle has its own different sensors and it can even be fed with more sensors more communication equipment and so on, even further, it can be done.

So, If we talk about a single vehicle in a connected vehicle scenario these vehicles could be talking to the immediate next vehicle the neighbor vehicle. This vehicle could be talking to this one maybe with the either directly or with the help of some intermediate vehicle which is there in its neighborhood. This vehicle could be talking to a roadside person you know so this connection the flow you know this communication flow might be possible or there could be these different existing communication infrastructures with which this information the exchange may also happen. 

So you can have v two I & v two v, vehicle to infrastructure vehicle to vehicle communication vehicle to human or even human to vehicle. When we are talking about humans we are talking about the humans who are not in the vehicle who is on the roadside so all these things are made possible in the connected vehicles and there is a lot. If we look at the history there have been a lot of you know at least a decade or decade and a half there has been a lot of research on vehicular communication and intelligent transportation systems.

Vehicular ad hoc networks vanets vehicular sensor networks then came this connected vehicles then came you know intelligent connected vehicles all of these you know in different forms have been around but the different services this different service improvement that can be made possible in people are talking about in the context of connected vehicles. And this intelligent connected vehicles.

So let us look at some of these basics which will help in building these connected vehicles. So in connected vehicles, we have the vehicles that are equipped with different sensors, networking, and communication infrastructure different devices or by you know intra vehicle communication. So remember one thing couple of things you know so what is going to happen is in a connected vehicles scenario

Number one
It would be possible to communicate with the different devices inside a single-vehicle.

Number two
It is between different vehicles from a vehicle to the roadside infrastructure or a fixed infrastructure that means a non-mobile infrastructure. So all these different types of communication are going to happen in a connected vehicle scenario.

So issues such as security, privacies, scalability, reliability, quality of service, and on top of the lack of any singular global the standard for connectivity are some of the challenges that are facing the the building of connected vehicles. So if you are interested you know so this particular paper that is reference over here proves a concept of home connected vehicles this paper you can go through this basically gives a good account of the different issues surrounding the building of connected vehicles at present.

So the different challenges for example security.
It is very important because you know so you are opening-up with the help of wireless and with the help of these different vehicles plying all around in the city yes you are opening up to a lot of vulnerabilities at their your opening up you adding to the vulnerabilities and additionally privacy is also very important because the vehicular data plying all across different people can get access to that data.

So the privacy of the data from different vehicles is very important you know why privacy is important? Let us say that if the data is leaked for one reason or another let us say that there is someone so I am driving and I am in a connected vehicle kind of environment and from my vehicle the data is sent to another vehicle which is a trusted one by me.

But in between the data is leaked and that data is made accessible to somebody else. So in that case what is going to happen is the intruder or the malicious person or the entity which gets access to this data which was not intended for it, so if that entity gets access to the data they will know that where I am going to.

For example where this vehicle is going to and that could be risky that could be even a security threat a safety threat. Because you know not only safety threat or security threat to the vehicle itself, but also to the people who are inside like.

For example, if I am the user of the car if I am the driver of the car and if somebody gets access to this kind of information even my safety my security is also at risk. Scalability is a huge challenge you are talking about an environment where there is a lot of mobility a large number of devices coming in going out of the cities and you have to have some kind of a registry about who are the home users home vehicles, which vehicles are the foreign vehicles and some kind of pricings some kind of keeping track of all this mobility etc.

Yes these are going to be there and at any time anybody from outside can be coming into the cities people can we know the vehicles can be going out of the city and you know it’s a highly challenging scenario so a lot of issues of scalability, you know more vehicles being added a large number of vehicles being added at in peak hours it will a large number of vehicles could be added. So scalability issues are there upscale even downscaling also you know if you think it will be deep you will be able to understand that downscaling issues are also there.

Then you have the reliability issues. Concerning the reliable communication being possible, This kind of environment quality of service lack of global standards. 

So in a connected vehicle, connected vehicles are very good as we have seen there are a lot of different interesting use cases the use of connected vehicles.

Then we have the vehicular cloud in a vehicular cloud what is going to happen is these connected vehicles are going to send all these data these data are going to go to the cloud from the cloud lot of analytics are going to be performed are the data the[analytics/analytics] analytics data are going to be made available to the respective stakeholders.

So on so all these connected vehicles are part you can conceptualize connected vehicles in an as part of ah the vehicular cloud and vehicular cloud and connected vehicles as part of the IoT so these are like enablers of internet of things.

So the different users and the stakeholders of connected vehicles include academia, law enforcement bodies like the police, judiciary etcetera law enforcement bodies automobile companies government agencies standardization groups cloud service providers etc. So these are the different stakeholders, different actors of connected vehicles.

So typically in a connected vehicle, the most popular concept is the concept of the vehicle to everything paradigm. So v two x vehicle to everything. So v to x is basically part  of the future its intelligent transportation system, which enables vehicles to wirelessly share a diverse range of information and the information sharing maybe with other vehicles, pedestrians or fixed infrastructures such as mobile towers parking meters and so on.

So this is what this vehicle can communicate with the pedestrians on the way with the other vehicles on the road or with fixed infrastructures such as mobile towers or parking meters and so on. So this basically allows for graphic management ensuring on-road and off-road safety mobility for traveling and so on. So I do not need to elaborate on these but this is quite evident and understandable how this v two x is going to be useful.
v two x basically follows a distributed architecture where the contents are widely distributed over the network. So content-based communication.

So I will talk about that it’s a content-centric v two x basically uses content-centric and not really the TCP IP kind of you know information dissemination approach. It is not restricted to single-source information provider, it is designed mainly for highly mobile environments and vehicular environments are highly mobile environments. It is designed mainly for such kind of environments.

The vehicles can share information to notes in the vicinity as well as to remotely located notes. So here v two x has greatly enhanced the travel efficiency, the safety, security and so on the network in v to x is mainly used as a tool for sharing and dissemination of information and that is not something very new because ultimately what is going to happen is after this information is collected from these different sensors.

If the dissemination has to happen with some communication medium and typically it’s a wireless communication medium where there is a network and the network basically helps in the dissemination of information.

Now, what do we already have in terms of implementation of v to x? We already have our internet runs on TCP IP. So if we try to implement two x on top of TCP IP this is what is going to happen. So it is going to fail why so TCP IP is designed mainly for handling information between single pair of entities. There is a source, there is a destination and between these sources and destination whether they are in direct range of each other or they are far apart TCP IP will have different solutions by which to send the data from one point to another.

So the location of the information exchange in TCP IP is dependent on the location of data. So there is a specific database located at some place so from that point the data has to be fetched. So from this particular database in a particular server, the data has to be fetched.

So this is like dependent on the location of the data can only identify TCP IP can only identify the address of the endpoints which alone is not useful for content distribution and that content distribution is what is required in the cases of connected vehicles in v to x. And there is an increase in the number of wireless devices which basically restricts the mobility of the different nodes.

In content-centric networking you know it basically
conceptually has similarities to the popular information-centric networking, which focuses on the data than the actual location of the data. So I need some data do not have to say that I have to get it from this particular database or this particular source.

In content-centric networking what is going to happen is if I need access to a particular data, I will be doing some kind of a broadcasting some kind of broadcasting of that particular requirement that query and whoever has that data is going to send me the data. So this is how the content-centric networking contrast to TCP IP functions.

So we have hierarchically name data in content-centric network. Hierarchically named data is something like X.Y.Z. This kind of hierarchy is followed ok something like my data would be something like Mr. Sudeep. Age. something.

So it is hierarchically named you know very similar I am giving you just an analogous example, not the exact one. So hierarchical data is transmitted directly instead of being part of the conversation. So the conversation would be like the entire thing that becomes the entire conversation.

So this is how the hierarchical data is organized so I do not need to really if I need to get access to a particular part of that hierarchical data I don’t need to access the entire conversation I can simply pick up from that particular part. So it enables scalable and efficient data dissemination in-network caching & allows for low data traffic it works well in highly mobile environments.

So in highly mobile environments, you do not really need to keep track of the source the destination and the intermediate hops in between and how the data is going to float all around. So you have a high ad hoc kind of scenario and content-centric networking I basically the following this kind of philosophy that just explained is very much useful.

So we are talking about vehicular ad hoc networks which are based on dedicated short-range communication DSRC and the wave protocol which is wireless access in vehicular environments the wave protocol.
So these are the two well-known protocols that are used in vehicular ad hoc network the DSRC protocol and the wave protocol.

So routing protocols are derived from the Manets but here actually, you have different types of characteristics than Manets. It is a derivation all these routing protocols for Manets are basically derivations over from Manets but again they are different by taking the typical features of vehicular networks how the vehicles fly ply on the road on highways and so on.

Are taking into account and how they communicate with the roadside infrastructure these are actually taken into account. So high throughput is achievable in mobile environments using vanets and also low latency can be guaranteed in mobile environments invanets.

Vanet basically has different features it has a highly dynamic a topology where the vehicle vehicles are highly mobile and they are changing their position and the network topologies come continuously the brake and them make continuously so you have a highly dynamic breaking making kind of topology which is done continuously.

So high transmission and computation capability and the vehicles store energy sources and the computational sources are used to draw power. But basically, it is much higher compared to the stand-alone IoT devices.
That is why there is no not much restriction on the energy source energy use and computational power and so on because the vehicular you know energy sources and the computational energy sources in the vehicles these are quite high unstable connectivity in vanets link durations are short due to the high dynamic features of these networks.

These networks can be scaled up very easily to include different other vehicles on the road they can join these particular networks without affecting the throughput in a very significant manner. The predictable mobility patterns can be achieved in these kinds of networks because the vehicles are restricted within the roads you know how the road structure is and that basically restricts the mobility pattern also and these mobility patterns are predictable in these kinds of networks.

In contrary to Manets basically in mobile ad hoc networks the mobility Isa big issue you do not know how the vehicles are going to move it is hard to predict the mobility of these different vehicles. Safety issues are there emergency braking, lane change warning, collision avoidance, hazard notification these are the different safety applications of vanets. Efficiency for congestion management electronic toll collection parking availability these are again different attractive applications of vanets.

Three types of applications are commercial applications for example making a having internet access multimedia streaming all these possibilities on the road when you are on the road in the car in the vehicle so these are possible in vanets.

Then different other comfort comforts for getting whether information autonomous driving journey time estimation is all made possible with the help of the implementation of vanets.

Then CCN the Content-Centric Networking that was telling you before. How it is implemented in vanets?

So some sort of routing is done but this kind of routing is a bit different. So forwarding and routing is best here on the name of the content not the location of the content.

The name of the content is used for routing the individual contents name prefixes are advertised by the routers across the network these helps to build a forwarding information base for each router. The name of the content remains the same and unique globally and there is no issue of IP address management or address exhaustion.

The communication does not depend on the speed or direction of the different nodes so these are the different issues so the main thing that he has to be remembered is there is indeed the same way as we have routing tables in the case of TCP IP based routing.

Here we also have a very similar kind of thing which we have the forwarding information base at each of these different routes, but here the routing is done not based on the location of the content but on the basis of the name of the contents.

So where this and that name has to be unique so this is very important if the name is not unique then this kind of routing cannot be done. So in content-centric routing, the name also has to be unique in the network.
Scalability and in networking caching mechanism at each outer is implemented which uniquely identifies the named data chunks and these data chunks are stored in something known as the content store which acts like cash. Subsequent requests for a stored data chuck can be made to a content store.

The naming system in the content store enables data to be used multiple times unlike in the case of normal IP based routers as we discuss before. There is a reduced network load during the increased network size as a result of the caching mechanism.

Now will talk about a very interesting architecture which is called the body and brain architecture. It has been proposed for connected vehicles. So it is an in-vehicle networking architecture which has a very similar kind of architecture as in the human body we have the body the code. The body has the skeleton, the muscles, tissues, the organs, and that kind of structure, but on top of you, we also have the nervous system, the brain, etc. A similar kind of thing is done in this case as well.

So here we have a three-layered architecture that is a sense and execution layer then we have the network and transmission layer and then we have the decision layer so the sense and execution layer is very similar to the body of a human body, the network, and transmission layer is very similar to the the nervous system of the human body and the decision layer is very similar to the the brain of the human body so there are three layers the body consists of intelligent networking nodes which constantly collect information from the vehicle and then the brain basically manages the central coordination.

So let us first look at the sense and execution layer in the sense and execution layer we have these intelligent nodes. With the help of sensors actuators different radios the information is acquired with the help of different other devices like lidar, radar, proximity sensors and different other sensors plus actuators such as steering brakes lights etc.
The information is acquired and the commands are executed through the ah through the actuators or through the different radio ah mechanisms these are made available and this is how the sense and execution layer looks like in a connected vehicle scenario.

The intelligent networking nodes which have intelligence with implemented with the help of software. There are different types of nodes one is the registered type nodes which can be opened or closed there is a motor type nodes which the motors can be moving clockwise counterclockwise or the a motor can be stopped.
Switch type nodes switches can be of different types in an the intelligent ah net ah node in an intelligent vehicle as.

It could be the switches could be a nob ah a pneumatic switch or an electromagnetic switch the sensors could be rheostatic switch rheostatic sensors rheostats we already know what a rheostat is so rheostatic sensors or transformers or transducers or they could be assembled nodes comprising of different separate electronic controls.

The network and transmission layer looks like this so you know this is basically this network and transmission layer and as this name suggest we have for communication this is used primarily for communication the sense and execution layer on the very bottom and on the top we have the decision layer and in between, we have this communication in the communication layer where there is a vehicle bus system.

Bus means that it’s a collection of ware so we have them in bus in-vehicle bus system and so and there are different proprietary and to open-source components for communications so all these together will comprise the network and transmission layer which is used for communication.

And that basically sits in between the sensing and execution layer and the decision layer that we talk about now in the decision the layer which sits on top of the network and transmission layer, The information is transmitted for monitoring to the administrative node and for control of the sensor nodes the supervisory node basically sends the command to the network and the transmission layer for further sending to the actuators underneath.

So with this, we come to an end of connected vehicles we have talked about ah the first part of the connected vehicles. The different issues with connected vehicles why connected vehicles are very important and the different associated terminologies for example vehicular communication.
We also spoke about different other allied terms such as vehicular ad how networks vehicular sensor networks ah then intelligent ah intelligent vehicular systems then internet-connected vehicles and ah intelligent connected vehicles icvs. 

So these are the different things that we spoke about in the next lecture we will talk about a few other different issues with connected vehicles and how those issues can be resolved to thank you

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